Celeste Lyn Paul

Curriculum Vitae

I am a senior researcher at the U.S. Department of Defense where I study humans and cyber.


Conference Papers

  • J. Dykstra and C.L. Paul (2018) Cyber Operations Stress Survey (COSS): Studying fatigue, frustration, and cognitive workload in cybersecurity operations. USENIX Workshop on Cyber Security Experimentation and Test. USENIX.
  • J.M. Haney and C.L. Paul (2018) Toward Integrated Tactical Operations for Red/Blue Cyber Defense Teams. Workshop on Security Information Workers 2018. RG
  • C.L. Paul and L. Bradel (2018) Size Matters: The Effects of Interactive Display Size on Interaction Zones. ACM AVI 2018, #41. ACM DL
  • E. Wall, L. Blaha, C.L. Paul, K. Cook, A. Endert (2017) Four Perspectives on Human Bias in Visual Analytics. DECISIVe 2017. RG
  • R. Rhodes, I. Harbison, N. Bos, C.L. Paul, C. Fink, A. Johnson (2017) Influencing graph perception and judgment: Effects of direct connections, base rates, and visual layout proximity in social network analysis. CogSci Annual Meeting 2017, 2992-2997. MM
  • D.L. Arendt, D.M. Best, R. Burtner, C.L. Paul (2016) CyberPetri at CDX 2016: Real-time Network Situation Awareness. IEEE VizSec 2015, 1-4. IEEE Xplore
  • N. Bos, C.L. Paul, J.R. Gersh, A. Greenberg, C. Piatko, S. Sperling, J. Spitaletta, D.L. Arendt, R. Burtner (2016) Effects of Gain/Loss Framing in Cyber Defense Decision-Making. HFES Annual Meeting 2016, 168-172. SAGE
  • D.L. Arendt, R. Burtner, D.M. Best, N.D. Bos, J.R. Gersh, C.D. Piatko, C.L. Paul (2015) Ocelot: User-centered Design of a Decision Support Visualization for Network Quarantine. IEEE VizSec 2015, 1-8. IEEE Xplore
  • C.L. Paul (2014) Human-Centered Study of a Network Operations Center: Experience Report and Lessons Learned. Security Information Workers 2014, 39-42. ACM DL
  • C.L. Paul, C. Argenta, W. Elm, A. Endert (2014) Future Directions of Humans in Big Data Research. IEEE Big Data 2014, 903-904. IEEE Xplore
  • C.L. Paul and A. Komlodi (2014) Measuring User Experience through Future Use and Emotion. ACM CHI 2014, Extended Abstracts, 2503-2508. ACM DL
  • C.L. Paul, K. Cook, and R. Burtner (2014) The Economics of Contribution in a Large Enterprise-scale Wiki. ACM CSCW 2014, Extended Abstracts, 205-208. ACM DL
  • M. Whiting, K. Cook, C.L. Paul, K. Whitley, G. Grinstein, B. Nebesh, K. Liggett, M. Cooper and J. Fallon (2013) VAST Challenge 2013: Situation Awareness and Prospective Analysis. IEEE VAST 2013. RG
  • C.L. Paul, R. Rohrer, P. Sponaugle, J. Huston, and B. Nebesh (2013) CyberSAVI: A Situation Awareness Visual Interface for Mission-Level Network Situation Awareness. VizSec 2013. PDF
  • C.L. Paul and K. Whitley (2013) A Taxonomy of Cyber Awareness Questions for the User-Centered Design of Cyber Situation Awareness. HCII 2013, Human Aspects of Security (HAS), 145-154. Springer
  • K. Cook, G. Grinstein, M. Whiting, M. Cooper, P. Havig, K. Liggett, B. Nebesh, and C.L. Paul (2013) VAST Challenge 2012: Visual Analytics for Big Data. IEEE VAST 2012, 251-255. IEEE Xplore
  • C.L. Paul and A. Komlodi (2012) Emotion as an Indicator for Future Interruptive Notification Experiences. ACM CHI 2012, Extended Abstracts, 2003-2008. ACM DL
  • C.L. Paul, A. Komlodi, and W. Lutters (2011) Again?! The Emotional Experience of Social Notification Interruptions. IFIP INTERACT 2011, 471-478. Springer
  • C.L. Paul, E. Morse, A. Zhang, Y. Choong, and M. Theofanos (2011) A Field Study of User Perception and Behavior of Smartcard Use in Multi-factor Authentication. IFIP INTERACT 2011, 1 - 17. Springer
  • C.L. Paul (2010) Alternatives to Traditional Laboratory-based Usability Testing in Free/Libre/Open Source Software. FLOSS HCI Workshop 2010. RG
  • C.L. Paul (2009) Survey of Usability Practices in Open Source Software. IFIP Open Source Systems 2009, 264-273. Springer

Journal Articles

  • C.L. Paul, J. Chang, A. Endert, R. Burtner, N. Cramer, D. Gillen, S. Hampton, R. Perko and K. Cook (2018) TexTonic: Interactive Visual Data Exploration for Very Large Text Collections. Information Visualization, 12 July 2018. SAGE
  • C.L. Paul and J. Dykstra (2017) Fatigue, Frustration, and Cognitive Workload in Remote Operations across NSA Cryptologic Centers. Journal of Intelligence Community Research and Development, September 2017, #450.
  • C.L. Paul and J. Dykstra (2017) Understanding Operator Fatigue, Frustration, and Cognitive Workload in Tactical Cybersecurity Operations. Journal of Information Warfare, Vol. 16, Issue 2, 1-11. RG
  • J. Dykstra and C.L. Paul (2015) Stress and the Cyber Warrior: Workload in a Computer Operations Center. Journal of Sensitive Cyber Research and Engineering, Vol. 3, Issue 1, 1-23. (Best Paper Award)
  • C.L. Paul, A. Komlodi and W. Lutters (2015) Interruptive Notifications in Support of Task Management. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, Vol. 79, 20-34. Elsevier
  • C.L. Paul, R. Rohrer and B. Nebesh (2015) A "Design First" Approach to Visualization Innovation. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, Vol. 35, Issue 1, 12-18. IEEE CGA
  • R. Rohrer, C.L. Paul and B. Nebesh (2014) Visual Analytics for Big Data. The Next Wave, Vol. 20, Issue 4, 27-37. RG
  • C.L. Paul (2014) Analyzing Card Sorting Data with Graph Visualization. Journal of Usability Studies, Vol. 9, Issue 3, 87-104. JUS
  • C.L. Paul (2008) A Modified Delphi Approach to a New Card Sorting Methodology. Journal of Usability Studies, Vol. 4, Issue 1, 7-30. JUS
  • J. Muehlig and C.L. Paul (2006) OpenUsability.org -- Usability and Open Source Software. BCS HCI Interfaces, Vol. 66, 18-21. RG

Other Publications

  • C.L. Paul and J. Dykstra (2018) Stress and Hacking: Understanding Cognitive Stress in Tactical Cyber Operations. Black Hat USA 2018, 50 Minute Briefing. BHUSA
  • S. Engle, D. Staheli, C.L. Paul, S. Walton, N. Prigent, R. Gove and L. Harrison (eds) (2017) Proceedings of the 2017 IEEE Symposium on Visualization for Cyber Security. IEEE. IEEE Xplore
  • C.L. Paul, J.D. Harris, J. Keiser, K. Moore and Allen F. (eds) (2014) Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Human-Centered Big Data Research. ACM International Conference Proceedings Series. ACM DL
  • M.F. Theofanos, H. Wald, E.L. Morse, Y. Choong, C.L. Paul, and A.L. Zhang (2012) Usability of PIV Smartcards for Logical Access. National Institute of Standards and Technology, NISTIR 7867. NIST
  • C.L. Paul (2009) Examples of Low-budget, Rigorous Usability Tests. The Art of Community by Jono Bacon (O'Reilly Media), 199-201. AoC
  • C.L. Paul (2008) Usability in Open Source Software. UPA Voice, February 2008.

Open Technology and Culture


HacDC is a 501(c)(3) non-profit hackerspace in Washington D.C. that aims to improve the world by creatively rethinking technology. I joined the HacDC community in 2014 and served as President on the 2015 Board of Directors.


KDE is an international community that develops free and open software for desktop and portable computing. I was involved in (and later led) the KDE Usability Project from 2004-2012 and served on the KDE e.V. board of directors from 2009-2012.


Kubuntu is an operating system that provides the KDE suite of software in a user-friendly Linux distribution. I provided usability and design support from 2006-2011 and served on the Kubuntu Council from 2008-2010.

Open Usability

Open Usability is an organization that offered expertise to improve the usability and design of open source projects. From 2006-2011 I helped support many open source projects in their efforts to integrate usability and design principles into their software. I was a mentor (2007-2009, 2011) and program coordinator (2009) for the OpenUsability Season of Usability, a short-term internship-style mentoring program that matched early-career designers to work with open source projects.