Celeste Lyn Paul

Curriculum Vitae

Researcher focused on human factors in information security and visualization for analysis, as well as other topics in Human-computer Interaction.

Currently working at the U.S. Department of Defense as a Senior Computer Systems Researcher. Previously at Boeing, NIST and the National Institute for Standards and Technology.

Graduated from the University of Maryland Baltimore County with a Ph.D. in Human Centered Computing. Also attended the University of Baltimore and Duquesne University.


Conference Papers

  • R. Rhodes, I. Harbison, N. Bos, C.L. Paul, C. Fink, A. Johnson (to appear, 2017) Influencing graph perception and judgment: Effects of direct connections, base rates, and visual layout proximity in social network analysis. CogSci Annual Meeting 2017, to appear.
  • D.L. Arendt, D.M. Best, R. Burtner, C.L. Paul (2016) CyberPetri at CDX 2016: Real-time Network Situation Awareness. IEEE VizSec 2015, 1-4. IEEE Xplore
  • N. Bos, C.L. Paul, J.R. Gersh, A. Greenberg, C. Piatko, S. Sperling, J. Spitaletta, D.L. Arendt, R. Burtner (2016) Effects of Gain/Loss Framing in Cyber Defense Decision-Making. HFES Annual Meeting 2016, 168-172. SAGE
  • D.L. Arendt, R. Burtner, D.M. Best, N.D. Bos, J.R. Gersh, C.D. Piatko, C.L. Paul (2015) Ocelot: User-centered Design of a Decision Support Visualization for Network Quarantine. IEEE VizSec 2015, 1-8. IEEE Xplore
  • C.L. Paul (2014) Human-Centered Study of a Network Operations Center: Experience Report and Lessons Learned. Security Information Workers 2014, 39-42. ACM DL
  • C.L. Paul, C. Argenta, W. Elm, A. Endert (2014) Future Directions of Humans in Big Data Research. IEEE Big Data 2014, 903-904. IEEE Xplore
  • C.L. Paul and A. Komlodi (2014) Measuring User Experience through Future Use and Emotion. ACM CHI 2014, Extended Abstracts, 2503-2508. ACM DL
  • C.L. Paul, K. Cook, and R. Burtner (2014) The Economics of Contribution in a Large Enterprise-scale Wiki. ACM CSCW 2014, Extended Abstracts, 205-208. ACM DL
  • M. Whiting, K. Cook, C.L. Paul, K. Whitley, G. Grinstein, B. Nebesh, K. Liggett, M. Cooper and J. Fallon (2013) VAST Challenge 2013: Situation Awareness and Prospective Analysis. IEEE VAST 2013. RG
  • C.L. Paul, R. Rohrer, P. Sponaugle, J. Huston, and B. Nebesh (2013) CyberSAVI: A Situation Awareness Visual Interface for Mission-Level Network Situation Awareness. VizSec 2013. PDF
  • C.L. Paul and K. Whitley (2013) A Taxonomy of Cyber Awareness Questions for the User-Centered Design of Cyber Situation Awareness. HCII 2013, Human Aspects of Security (HAS), 145-154. Springer
  • K. Cook, G. Grinstein, M. Whiting, M. Cooper, P. Havig, K. Liggett, B. Nebesh, and C.L. Paul (2013) VAST Challenge 2012: Visual Analytics for Big Data. IEEE VAST 2012, 251-255. IEEE Xplore
  • C.L. Paul and A. Komlodi (2012) Emotion as an Indicator for Future Interruptive Notification Experiences. ACM CHI 2012, Extended Abstracts, 2003-2008. ACM DL
  • C.L. Paul, A. Komlodi, and W. Lutters (2011) Again?! The Emotional Experience of Social Notification Interruptions. IFIP INTERACT 2011, 471-478. Springer
  • C.L. Paul, E. Morse, A. Zhang, Y. Choong, and M. Theofanos (2011) A Field Study of User Perception and Behavior of Smartcard Use in Multi-factor Authentication. IFIP INTERACT 2011, 1 - 17. Springer
  • C.L. Paul (2009) Survey of Usability Practices in Open Source Software. IFIP Open Source Systems 2009, 264-273. Springer

Journal Articles

  • C.L. Paul and J. Dykstra (to appear, 2017) Understanding Operator Fatigue, Frustration, and Cognitive Workload in Tactical Cybersecurity Operations. Journal of Information Warfare, To appear.
  • J. Dykstra and C.L. Paul (2015) Stress and the Cyber Warrior: Workload in a Computer Operations Center. Journal of Sensitive Cyber Research and Engineering, Vol. 3, Issue 1, 1-23. (Best Paper Award)
  • C.L. Paul, A. Komlodi and W. Lutters (2015) Interruptive Notifications in Support of Task Management. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, Vol. 79, 20-34. Elsevier
  • C.L. Paul, R. Rohrer and B. Nebesh (2015) A "Design First" Approach to Visualization Innovation. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, Vol. 35, Issue 1, 12-18. IEEE CGA
  • C.L. Paul (2014) Analyzing Card Sorting Data with Graph Visualization. Journal of Usability Studies, Vol. 9, Issue 3, 87-104. JUS
  • C.L. Paul (2008) A Modified Delphi Approach to a New Card Sorting Methodology. Journal of Usability Studies, Vol. 4, Issue 1, 7-30. JUS
  • J. Muehlig and C.L. Paul (2006) OpenUsability.org -- Usability and Open Source Software. BCS HCI Interfaces, Vol. 66, 18-21. RG

Other Publications

  • C.L. Paul, J.D. Harris, J. Keiser, K. Moore and Allen F. (eds) (2014) Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Human-Centered Big Data Research. ACM International Conference Proceedings Series. ACM DL
  • M.F. Theofanos, H. Wald, E.L. Morse, Y. Choong, C.L. Paul, and A.L. Zhang (2012) Usability of PIV Smartcards for Logical Access. National Institute of Standards and Technology, NISTIR 7867. NIST
  • C.L. Paul (2010) Alternatives to Traditional Laboratory-based Usability Testing in Free/Libre/Open Source Software. FLOSS HCI Workshop at ACM CHI 2010. RG
  • C.L. Paul (2009) Examples of Low-budget, Rigorous Usability Tests. The Art of Community by Jono Bacon (O'Reilly Media), 199-201. AoC

Open Technology and Culture


HacDC is a 501(c)(3) non-profit hackerspace in Washington D.C. that aims to improve the world by creatively rethinking technology. I've been a member since 2014 and served as President on the 2015 Board of Directors.


KDE is an international community that develops free and open software for desktop and portable computing. I was involved in (and later led) the KDE Usability Project from 2004-2012 and served on the KDE e.V. board of directors from 2009-2012.


Kubuntu is an operating system that provides the KDE suite of software in a user-friendly Linux distribution. I provided usability and design support from 2006-2011 and served on the Kubuntu Council from 2008-2010.

Open Usability

Open Usability is an organization that offered expertise to improve the usability and design of open source projects. From 2006-2011 I helped support many open source projects in their efforts to integrate usability and design principles into their software. I was a mentor (2007-2009, 2011) and program coordinator (2009) for the OpenUsability Season of Usability, a short-term internship-style mentoring program that matched early-career designers to work with open source projects.